II Year B.Tech BT II-Sem
MASS TRANSFER AND SEPARATION
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO MASS TRANSFER AND DIFFUSION
Introduction to Mass Transfer Operations; Fick’s Law of Diffusion, Gas diffusion and Liquid diffusion (one component transferring to non-transferring component and equimolar counter diffusion.) Diffusivity estimation (Stefan’s experiment); permeability, distribution of gas and liquid components through solid, diffusion of biological solutes in liquids, diffusion in biological gels.
UNIT II: MASS TRANSFER CO-EFFICIENT
Definition of kL, F-type, K-type coefficients, Dimensionless numbers, Sherwood number, Stanton number, Schmidt number; estimation of MTC for the case where mass is diffusing from solid wall to bulk liquid. (Flat plates, cylindrical tubes) and flow past single solids, Application of kLa in Biological Systems.
UNIT III :
Interface mass transfer, gas phase controlling, and liquid phase controlling operations.
UNIT IV: GAS LIQUID OPERATION - I
Absorption: Definition, Solubilities of gases in liquids, single stage (one component transferring) operation.
UNIT VIII: MEMBRANE SEPARATION PROCESSES
Dialysis; Hemodialysis; Gas permeation process, introduction to types of flow in gas permeation; hollow – fiber separation assembly, reverse osmosis, application of reverse osmosis, introduction of ultra filtration processes and micro filtration processes.
UNIT VII: LIQUID – LIQUID AND SOLID –LIQUID OPERATIONS -II
Adsorption: Physical adsorption, Chemisorption, Adsorption hysterisis, adsorption isotherm, Single stage operation, Fixed bed adsorption,Case Studies with immobilized cell/enzyme systems
INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION
Types of Analytical Methods – Instruments for Analysis – Uncertainties in Instrumental measurements – Sensitivity and detection limit for instruments.
UNIT II: MICROSCOPY
Bright field, Dark field, Fluorescent, Phase contrast, confocal microscopy, SEM & TEM Microscopy, Flow Cytometry.
UNIT III: CENTRIFUGATION
General Principals, Ultra Centrifugation, velocity Sedimentation & measurements, Equilibrium Ultracentrifugation – Density Gradient centrifugation
UNIT VI: ONLINE MONITORING AND CONTROL DEVICES
pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, agitation, sensors and their operation.
UNIT VII: X RAY DIFFRACTION AND CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
Principle, Mode of Operation and Applications
UNIT VII: SEPARATION EQUIPMENTS – PRINCIPLES AND OPERATION:
HPLC, Gas chromatography, Ion – exchange Chromatography, Gel – filtration Chromatography, Affinity Chromatography, Membrane separations, Ultrafiltration , Reverse Osmosis
UNIT I: STRUCTURE OF DNA
Detailed structure of DNA, variation from Watson & Crick model, Z - DNA, A & B DNA, Denaturation & melting curves.
UNIT-II: DNA REPLICATION - I
Models of DNA replication: semi conservative Mechanism of DNA replication in E.coli (bi- directional). Mitochondrial (D-loop), Viral DNA (Rolling circle), Single stranded- DNA phages (M13, Ø174),
UNIT VI: PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS
The genetic code and Wobble Hypothesis, Codon usage, Protein synthesis In Prokaryotes.
UNIT VII : PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN EUKARYOTES
Eukaryotic Protein synthesis, differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic protein synthesis, Post translational modifications. Inhibitors of protein synthesis .
UNIT VIII : MUTAGENESIS
Mutations, spontaneous, induced, lethal, mutagens their types and actions, classification of mutations and their applications. Site - directed mutagenesis and reverse genetics. DNA damage and repair mechanisms. Mutagenicity testing using microbial systems, Ames TEST.
UNIT – III : DNA REPLICATION- II
Eukaryotic telomeres and its replication Inhibitors of DNA Replication. Enzymes involved in replication, step by step process.
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO BIOPROCESSES
An overview of traditional and modern applications of biotechnology industry, outline of an integrated bioprocess and the various (upstream and down stream) unit operations involved in bioprocesses, generalized process flow sheets.
UNIT II: FERMENTATION PROCESSES-I
General requirements of fermentation processes, Basic design and construction of fermentor and ancillaries, Main parameters to be monitored and controlled in fermentation processes;
UNIT III: FERMENTATION PROCESSES-II
An overview of aerobic and anaerobic fermentation processes and their application in the biotechnology industry, solid-substrate, slurry fermentation and its applications, whole cell immobilization, behaviour of microbes in different reactors (air lift, fluidized, batch, continuous fed batch condition).
UNIT IV: MEDIA DESIGN
Medium requirements for fermentation processes, carbon, nitrogen, minerals, vitamins and other complex nutrients, oxygen requirements, medium formulation for optimal growth and product formation, examples of simple and complex media, design and usage of various commercial media for industrial fermentations
UNIT V: METABOLIC STOICHIOMETRY
Stoichiometry of Cell growth and product formation, elemental balances, degrees of reduction of substrate and biomass, available electron balances, yield coefficients of biomass and product formation, maintenance
UNIT VIII: ENZYME PROCESSES
Production of enzymes in submerged and solid-state processes, extraction and purification of enzymes, methods of characterization, specific activity and activity definitions.
III Year B.Tech BT II-Sem
COMPUTATIONAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Introduction to active areas of research in Computational Molecular Biology, Functional Genomics, Comparative Genomics, Dynamic Programming, Graphical representation of biochemical systems, S-systems equations, steady state analysis, Model refinements
UNIT II : GENOMICS
DNA Sequence assembly and gene identification. Homology based gene prediction. SNPs and applications. Methods of studying gene expression, EST approach,
UNIT-III MICRO ARRAYS
Basics of Micro array
UNIT V: PROTEOMICS II
Protein homology modeling, Protein threading. Protein ab initio structure prediction. Protein design emphasis on structural Bioinformatics.
UNIT VI: TAXONOMY AND PHYLOGENY
Basic concepts in systematics, Molecular evolution, Definition and description of Phylogenetic trees and types of trees
UNIT-VIII: DRUG DESIGN
Drug discovery cycle, Role of Bioinformatics in Drug discovery
BIOCHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING -II
UNIT I: BASIC CONCEPT
Definition of bioreactor, fundamental principles, Concept in energy and mass balances and in biological reaction modeling.
Classification of reactors and their configurations, Application in submerged fermentation and solid state fermentation, classification based schuegerl, kafarov components of bioreactors and operation of bioreactors.
UNIT III: ANALYSIS OF IDEAL REACTORS
Concepts of reactors based on flow characteristics, design of ideal reactors using material and energy balance. Batch bioreactor design.
UNIT V : PLUG FLOW REACTION SYSTEM
Plug flow behavior, design of plug flow reactor, comparison of productivity in plug flow and single stage single flow chemostat.
UNIT VI: NON-IDEAL BEHAVIOUR IN REACTION SYSTEMS
Reasons for non-ideality, concept of macro using –RTD analysis (E-C-F functions), diagnosing the ills of non-ideal bioreactors.
UNIT VII : DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF ENZYME REACTORS
Application tubular reactor concept in immobilized packed bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors.
UNIT VIII: SPECIFIC BIOREACTORS ANALYSIS AND SCALE-UP
Design and analysis of fed-batch and air-lift bioreactors. Application in animal cell culture. Basic concept of scale-up, non-dimensional analysis.
HEAT TRANSFER IN BIOPROCESSES
UNIT-I: BASICS OF HEAT TRANSFER
Various modes of heat transfers, conduction, convection, and radiation. Mechanism of heat transfer by conduction, conductive heat transfer through a series of resistances.
UNIT-II:CONDUCTIVE HEAT TRANSFER:
Steady state and unsteady state heat transfer by conduction. Heat transfer through slab and cylinder. Concept of log mean radius for transfer through pipes. Extended surface heat transfer through fins etc.
Convection–Dimensional analysis, Forced convection in pipe and other geometries
Natural convection - various correlation for evaluating heat transfer coefficients.
Boiling and condensations. Mechanism of boiling: Film and nucleate boiling.
INSTRUMENTATION AND BIOPROCESS CONTROL
UNIT I: PROCESS DYNAMICS
Process variables-Load variables-Dynamics of simple processes. Flow, level, temperature and pressure
Interacting and non-interacting system, continuous and batch process-self - regulation-Servo and regulator operation problems.
UNIT III: CONTROL ACTIONS AND CONTROLLERS
Basic control actions-characteristics of two position, three position, proportional, single speed floating. Integral and derivative control modes- P+I. P+D and P+I+D control modes.Problems on pneumatic, hydraulic and electronic controllers to realize various control actions.
UNIT IV: OPTIMUM CONTROLLER SETTINGS
Evaluation criteria, 1/4th decay ratio, IAE. ISE, ITAE- determination of optimum settings for mathematically described process using time response and frequency response.
Tuning process reaction curve method-continuous, oscillation method-damped oscillation method-problems.
UNIT VI: FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT
I/P Converter-pneumatic, electric and hydraulic actuators- valve positioner- control valves-characteristics of control valves-valve body-Globe, butterfly, diaphragm; Ball valves- Control valve sizing-Cavitation, flashing problem.
UNIT I: THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Introduction, Phylogeny of the Immune system, Innate and acquired immunity. Immunochemistry: Immunogens, antigens, their chemical nature, Properties influencing immunogenicity, Haptens, adjuvants.
UNIT II: BIOLOGY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
Cells of the IS: Haematopoiesis, lymphocyte leafficking, T, B, Macrophases, Dendritic cells, Natural killer cells, Eosinophils, Neutrophils, Mast cells and Phasocylosis.
UNIT III: ORGANS OF THE I.S. :
Primary and Secondary organs of I.S. (Thymus, Spleen, Lymphnode, lymphoid fo kicle, MALT, CALT, SALT
UNIT IV: HUMORAL IMMUNITY-I
B-lymphocytes, their lineage, Immunoglobulins, their structure function, classes, sub classes, genetic control of ab production. (Maturation of B cell) Isotype, allotypes, Idiotypes. Antigen-Antibody intereactions, hypersensitivity.
UNIT V: HUMORAL IMMUNITY -II
Activation of B cells, their differentiation and effector functions. Hybridoma Technology Monoclonal antibodies their application. Immunotoxing chimeric antibodies and abzymes.
UNIT VII: Hypersensititvity
Hypersensitivity: Types of hypersensitivity, Principle, mechanisms their relevance & significance. Role of immune system in transplantation, autoimmunity, tumors.
UNIT VIII: Role of immune system in transplantation, autoimmunity, tumors
Transplantation- Graft rejection evidence and mechanisms of graft rejection ,prevention of graft rejection, immuno suppressive drugs, Autoimmunity – experimental models of autoimmune disease treatment of autoimmune disorders and Tumor immunology.
IV Year B.Tech BT II-Sem
ANIMAL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Structure and Organization of animal cell; Equipments and materials for animal cell culture technology; Primary and established cell line cultures; Introduction to the balanced salt solutions and simple growth medium,
Brief discussion on the chemical, physical and metabolic functions of different constituents of culture medium. Role of carbon dioxide. Role of serum and supplements; Serum & protein free defined media and their application.
Measurement of viability and cytotoxicity; Biology and characterization of the cultured cells, measuring parameters of growth;
Basic techniques of mammalian cell culture in vitro; disaggregation of tissue and primary culture, maintenance of cell culture; cell separation.
Organ and histotypic cultures; Measurement of cell death; Apoptosis;
Three dimensional culture and tissue engineering.
FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
UNIT -1 INTRODUCTION TO FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Fundamentals and Aims of food science and technology. Interdisciplinary approach, Nutritive value of foods, Food as a source of energy, Food Health and disease.
UNIT -2 FOOD CHEMISTRY
Food chemistry-definition and importance, water in food, water activity and shelf life of food. Carbohydrates- functional properties of sugars and polysaccharides in foods. Lipids: use of lipids in foods, physical and chemical properties, effects of processing on functional properties and nutritive value. Protein and amino acids: physical and chemical properties, distribution, amount and functions of proteins in foods, functional properties, effect of processing.-Losses of vitamins and minerals due to processing.
UNIT -3 FOOD MICROBIOLOGY
Microbial growth pattern, Types of micro-organism normally associated with food-mold, yeast, and bacteria. Micro-organisms in natural food products. Contaminants of foods-stuffs, Fisheries, milk and meat during handling and processing. Biochemical changes caused by micro-organisms, deterioration of various types of food product. Food poisoning and microbial toxins, standards for different foods. Food borne intoxicants and mycotoxins.
UNIT -4 FOOD Preservation
Principles of food preservation: Physical ,chemical ,and biological methods of preservations. Bioprocessing of meat, Fisheries, vegetables, diary products. Irradiated foods.
UNIT -6 FOOD Additives and ANALYSIS
Sampling techniques and theory and practice of chemical and physical methods of food analysis for determination of food composition; Pigments in food, food flavours, food additives and toxicants. Natural sweeteners and artificial sweeteners and their role in controlling diseases and deficiencies, Nutraceuticals, and Functional Foods
UNIT -7 FOOD PROCESSING
Basic principles, unit operations, and equipment involved in the commercially important food processing methods and unit operations; materials and containers used in food packaging.
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACEUTICALS
History & Definition of Drugs. Sources of Drugs - Plant, Animals, Microbes and Minerals. Different dosage forms. Routes of drug administration.
UNIT II: PHARMACODYNAMICS
Physico-Chemical Principles, Pharmacodynamics- Mechanism of drug action, drug receptors, and Physiological receptors: structural and functional families.
UNIT III: PHARMACOKINETICS
Pharmacokinetics- Drug absortion, factors that affect the absortion of drugs, Distribution of drugs, Biotransformation of drugs, Bioavailability of drugs.
UNIT IV: DRUG MANUFACTURING PROCESSES I
Good manufacturing practices, manufacturing facilities, sources of Biopharmaceuticals,
UNIT VII: APPLICATIONS OF BIOPHARMACEUTICALS
Role of Biopharmaceuticals in treatment of various health disorders
UNIT VIII: DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS, BIOMATERIALS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
Controlled and sustained delivery of drugs. Biomaterial for the sustained drug delivery. Liposome mediated drug delivery. Drug delivery methods for therapeutic proteins.
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