1. What are Hard waters?
2. How are the waters classified based on the degree of Hardness?
3. How is hardness of water caused?
4. How is temporary hardness be removed?
5. How do you express the total hardness of water?
6. What is EDTA?
7. Write the structural formula for EDTA.
8. Why is disodium salt of EDTA preferred to EDTA?
9. Why is Ammonia solution added while preparing EDTA solution?
10. What is buffer solution?
11. Why is ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer added?
12. Why is the indicator Eriochrome Black(EBT) shows wine red color at the beginning and blue color at the end?
13. Why are the titration involving EDTA carried out slowly towards the end point?
14. What is the application of hardness date in environmental engineering practice?
15. What are the constituents of cements?
16. What is the prime constituents of cement?
17. Why is the role of glycerol & NaoH?
18. What is the function of diethyl amine?
19. Why is Eriochrome Black T indicator cannot be used in this experiment?
20. Which is the indicator used in the determination of CaO I cement solution?
21. What are constituents of Brass?
22. How is brass solution prepared?
23. What is the purpose of adding urea?
24. Why is ammonium hydroxide added to the brass solution?
25. What is the bluish white precipitate formed after adding ammonia solution?
26. Why is acetic acid added?
27. How is librated iodine estimated?
28. What is the reaction that occurs between iodine and sodium thiosulphate?
29. Why is starch indicator added towards the end point?
30. What is the white precipitate produced at the end of point?
31. What is the min constitutes of haematite ore?
32. Give the others form of iron ore.
33. What is the role of stannous chloride?
34. Why is mercuric chloride added?
35. What happens when the excess of stannous chloride is not removed
36. What is the indicator used?
37. Why is the color of the indicator drop remains the same at the end point?
38. What is the reaction that occurs during the titration?
39. What is weak acid?
40. What is pKa of acid?
41. What is meant by pH of a solution?
42. What is modern definition(IUPAC) of pH?
43. Why is glass electrode called an ion selective electrode?
44. How is measurement of pH made?
45. How are pH and pKa related?
46. How is the measurement of pH made?
47. How are pH and pKa related?
48. How are pKa and strength of a weak acid related?
49. What are the electrodes used in the measurement of pH for the determination of pKa?
50. Why is pH increases suddenly after the equivalence point?
51. What is chemical oxygen demand?
52. What general group of organic compounds are not oxidesied in the COD test?
53. What is the role of silver sulphate?
54. What is the role of mercuric sulphate?
55. What are the products formed after COD analysis?
56. Why is sulphuric acid added during the preparation of standard FAS solution?
57. What is the composition of ferroin?
58. Mention a few application of COD test in environmental engineering practice.
59. What is the limitation of COD?
60. What is a potentiometer titration?
61. Give the principle of potentiometer titration.
62. What are the electrodes used in potentiometer titration?
63. What is determining factor in the oxidation reduction reaction?
64. What is an indicator electrode?
65. What is the reaction that occurring between FAS and potassium dichromate?
66. What are the advantages of potentiometric titration?
67. What is Colorimetry?
68. What forms the basis for colorimetric determination?
69. What is photoelectric colorimeter?
70. What are filters? Why are they used?
71. What is wave length?
72. What is frequency?
73. What is wave number?
74. State Beerís law.
75. State Lambertís law.
76. State Beer-Lambertís law.
77. What is calibration curve?
78. What is meant by transmittance?
79. Mention a few important criteria for satisfactory colorimetric analysis.
80. Mention a few advantages of photoelectric colorimetric determination.
81. What is Blank solution?
82. Why is ammonia added? Why is that same amount of ammonia added?
83. Why is estimation of copper done at 620 nm wave length?
84. State ohmís law.
85. What is conductance?
86. What is the unit of conductance?
87. Mention the different types of conductivities.
88. Which of the above conductivity measured during conductometric titration?
89. What is specific conductivity?
90. What is equivalent conductivity?
91. What is molar conductivity?
92. What is a cell?
93. What is the principle involved in conductometric titration?
94. How is the accuracy of the method determined?
95. What are the advantages of conductometric titration over visual or potentiometric titration?
96. What is viscosity?
97. What is viscosity-coefficient of a liquid?
98. What is density of a liquid?
99. What is specific gravity?
100. How are specific gravity and density related?
101. What is SI unit of viscosity-coefficient?
102. What are the factors that affect the viscosity of a liquid?
103.How does the viscosity vary with temperature?
104. Why is acetone used for cleaning viscometer?
105. Why do you require laboratory temperature for viscosity determination?
106. How is the viscosity of liquid related to its mobility?
107. What is fluidity of a liquid?
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